DHCP In The Data Center
I’ve had and heard debates about using DHCP for large data center deployments. There is no doubt that DHCP is necessary for PXE install of servers but what about manual static addressing vs dynamic allocation?
Well, my automation mantra rejects anything that has some sort of manual process. When you have a pile of hundreds or thousands bare metal servers to set up, the last thing you want is decide manually all the IPs for each server. How would you even do that? Some places have a wiki page where they reference all IPs, which is probably a nightmare. Other places have static IPs but add a DNS entry manually to centralize the IPs in a zone file. This helps determine “free” addresses from one place. You can improve this slightly by using your configuration manager (Chef, Puppet…) to set the static IP and the DNS zone and have them in sync.
But, in the end, what are we trying to do here? We try to have a central place where we list IPs and network configurations in order to determine which is used and which is free. Them we manually assign a free address to our newly installed server. Guess what? Some thing invented years ago can automatically do that for you through a well documented and robust protocol. It’s called DHCP and removes the burden of doing the network configuration from you and negotiating all the mundane things that you don’t really want to repeat for each install like updating the DNS entries through DDNS updates.
So why not use DHCP? Excessive automation is often perceived as dangerous from many sysadmins and it is a significant concern. Yes, you have one more service to maintain but DHCP servers are generally one of the most stable and mature services around, requiring close to zero maintenance and have a simple failover mechanism. Some quirks can happen but here are some ways to alleviates issues (Note: I mostly know of the ISC DHCP server implementation packaged in most systems):
- Make sure dhclient is in persistent mode (See PERSISTENT_DHCLIENT option in RedHat/CentOS systems, it’s off by default) so that your server won’t stop requesting a network configuration if an error occur
- Increase the lease time to days, weeks or more. Small lease times are for places with high client turnaround and a limited address pool. Needless to say that this is not the case on a data center. You should also make sure that you have enough time to react on case of a server failure.
- Monitor lease expiration dates on your servers so that you are alerted before your server lease expire and loose connectivity.
Now you can spend time doing useful stuff like making your systems reliable, improve efficiency and monitoring…etc instead of assigning IPs every other day. Note that this has to be done in combination with automatic VLAN assignment, automatic DNS configuration and probably automated install and provisioning.